### Electronics Syllabus for ISRO Scientist Exam

**(1) Physical Electronics, Electron Devices and ICs:**

Electrons and holes in semi-conductors, Carner Statistics, Mechanism of current flow in a semi-conductor, Hall effect; Junction theory; Different types of diodes and their characteristics; Bipolar Junction transistor; Field effect transistors; Power switching devices like SCRs, GTOs, power MOSFETs; Basics of ICs-bipolar, MOS and CMOS types; basic and Opto Electronics.

**(2) Signals and Systems:**

Classification of signals and systems; System modeling in terms of differential and difference equations; State variable representation; Fourier series; Fourier transforms and their application to system analysis; Laplace transforms and their application to system analysis; Convolution and superposition integrals and their applications; Z-transforms and their applications to the analysis and characterization of discrete time systems; Random signals and probability; Correlation functions; Spectral density; Response of linear system to random inputs.

**(3) Network Theory:**

Network analysis techniques; Network theorems, transient response, steady state sinusoidal response; Network graphs and their applications in network analysis; Tellegen’s theorem. Two port networks; Z, Y, h and transmission parameters. Combination of two ports, analysis of common two ports. Network functions: parts of network functions, obtaining a network function from a given part. Transmission criteria: delay and rise time, Elmore’s and other definitions effect of cascading. Elements of network synthesis.

**(4) Electromagnetic Theory:**

Analysis of electrostatic and magneto-static fields; Laplace’s and Poisson’s equations; Boundary value problems and their solutions; Maxwell’s equations; application to wave propagation in bounded and unbounded media; Transmission lines: basic theory, standing waves, matching applications, microstrip lines; Basics of wave guides and resonators; Elements of antenna theory.

**(5) Analog Electronic Circuits:**

Transistor biasing and stabilization. Small signal analysis. Power amplifiers. Frequency. response. Wide banding techniques. Feedback amplifiers. Tuned amplifiers. Oscillators, Rectifiers and power supplies. Op Amp, PLL, other linear integrated circuits and applications. Pulse shaping circuits and waveform generators.

**(6) Digital Electronic Circuits:**

Transistor as a switching element; Boolean algebra, simplification of Boolean function Karnaugh map and applications; IC Logic gates and their characteristics; IC logic families: DTL, TTL, ECL, NMOS, PMOS and CMOS gates and their comparison; Combinational logic circuits; Half adder, Full adder; Digital comparator; Multiplexer De-multiplexer; ROM and their applications. Flip-flops. R-S, J-K, D and T flip-tops; Different types of counters and registers. Waveform generators. A/D and D/A converters. Semi-conductor memories.

**(7) Control Systems:**

Transient and steady state response of control systems; Effect of feedback on stability and sensitivity; Root locus techniques; Frequency response analysis. Concepts of gain and phase margins; Constant-M and Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from Constant-N Nichol’s Chart; Approximation of transient response from closed loop frequency response; Design of Control Systems; Compensators; Industrial controllers.

**(8) Communication Systems:**

Basic information theory; Modulation and detection in analogue and digital systems; Sampling and data reconstructions; Quantization and coding; Time division and frequency division multiplexing; Equalization; Optical Communication: in free space and fiber optic; Propagation of signals at HF, VHF, UHF and microwave frequency; Satellite Communication.

**(9) Microwave Engineering:**

Microwave Tubes and solid state devices, Microwave generation and amplifiers, Wave guides and other Microwave Components and Circuits, Microstrip circuits, Microwave Antennas, Microwave Measurements, Masers, Lasers; Micro-wave propagation. Microwave Communication Systems-terrestrial and satellite based.

**(10) Computer Engineering:**

Number Systems. Data representation; Programming; Elements of a high level programming language PASCAL/C; Use of basic data structures; Fundamentals of computer architecture; Processor design; Control unit design; Memory organization, I/o System Organization. Microprocessors: Architecture and instruction set of Microprocessor’s 8085 and 8086, Assembly language Programming. Microprocessor Based system design: typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses.

### Computer Science Syllabus for ISRO Scientist Exam

**(1) Computer H/W Digital Logic:**Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of Combinational and Sequential circuits — Number representation and Computer Arithmetic (fixed and floating point)

**(2) Computer Organization:**Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and Data-path, hardwired and micro-programmed control, Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Serial communication interface, Instruction pipelining, Cache, main and secondary storage.

**(3) SOFTWARE SYSTEMS**Data structures: Notion of abstract data types, Stack, Queue, List, Set, String, Tree, Binary search tree, Heap, Graph –

**(4) Programming Methodology:**C programming, Program control (iteration, recursion, Functions), Scope, Binding, Parameter passing, Elementary concepts of Object oriented, Functional and Logic Programming –

**(5) Algorithms for problem solving:**Tree and graph traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest paths — Hashing, Sorting, Searching — Design techniques (Greedy, Dynamic Programming, Divide-and-conquer) –

**(6) Compiler Design:**Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime environment, Code generation, Linking (static and dynamic) –

**(7) Operating Systems:**Classical concepts (concurrency, synchronization, deadlock), Processes, threads and Inter-process communication, CPU scheduling, Memory management, File systems, I/O systems, Protection and security.

**(8) Databases:**Relational model (ER-model, relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files, indexing, B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control –

**(9) Computer Networks:**ISO/OSI stack, sliding window protocol, LAN Technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), TCP/UDP, IP, Basic concepts of switches, gateways, and routers.

### Mechanical Syllabus for ISRO Scientist Exam

**1. ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS**

**L**inear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, system of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

**C**alculus: Taylor Series, Fourier Series, partial derivatives, total derivatives, definite and improper integrals, multiple integrals.

**V**ector Calculus: Gradient, divergence and curl, line and surface integrals, Green, Gauss and Stokes theorems.

**D**ifferential Equations: Linear ODEs, first order non-linear ODEs, initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transform, PDEs-Laplace, wave and diffusion equations.

**N**umerical Methods: Solution of system of linear equations, interpolation, numerical integration, Newton-Raphson method, Runge-Kutta method.

**P**robability & Statistics: Gaussian, Weibul distribution and their properties, method of least squares, regression analysis, analysis of variance.

**2. APPLIED MECHANICS AND DESIGN**

**E**ngineering Mechanics: Equivalent force systems, free-body concepts, equations of equilibrium, trusses and frames, virtual work and minimum potential energy. Kinematics and dynamics of particles and rigid bodies, impulse and momentum (linear and angular), energy methods, central force motion.

**S**trength of Materials: Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohrs circle for plane stress and plane strain, shear force and bending moment diagrams, bending and shear stresses, deflection of beams torsion of circular shafts, thin and thick cylinders, Eulers theory of columns, strain energy methods, thermal stresses.

**T**heory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration, analysis of plane mechanisms, dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism, planar cams and followers, gear tooth profiles, kinematics and design of gears, governors and flywheels, balancing of reciprocating and rotating masses.Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree freedom systems, effect of damping, vibration isolation, resonance, critical speed of rotors.

**D**esign of Machine Elements: Design for static and dynamic loading, failure theories, fatigue strength; design of bolted, riveted and welded joints; design of shafts and keys; design of spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings; brakes and clutches; belt, ropes and chain drives.

**3. FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL SCIENCES**

**F**luid Mechanics: Fluid properties, fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; Control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy, fluid acceleration; Differential equation of continuity and momentum; Bernoullis equation; Viscous flow of incompressible fluids; Boundary layer, Elementary turbulent flow; Flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

**H**eat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; One dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; Dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, Various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; Thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; Radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; Heat exchanger performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

**T**hermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; Thermodynamic system and processes; Irreversibility and availability; Behaviour of ideal and real gases, Properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; Analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion; Carnot, Rankine, Otto, Diesel, Brayton and Vapour compression cycles.

**P**ower Plant Engineering: Steam generators; Steam power cycles; Steam turbines; impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams, pressure and velocity compounding; Reheating and reheat factor; Condensers and feed heaters.I.C. Engines: Requirements and suitability of fuels in IC engines, fuel ratings, fuel-air mixture requirements; Normal combustion in SI and CI engines; Engine performance calculations.

**R**efrigeration and air-conditioning: Refrigerant compressors, expansion devices, condensers and evaporators; Properties of moist air, psychrometric chart, basic psychometric processes.

**T**urbomachinery: Components of gas turbines; Compression processes, Centrifugal and Axial flow compressors; Axial flow turbines, elementary theory; Hydraulic turbines; Euler-Turbine equation; Specific speed, Pelton-wheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines; Centrifugal pumps.

**4. MANUFACTURING AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING**

**E**ngineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials and their applications, heat treatment.

**M**etal Casting: Casting processes (expendable and non-expendable) -pattern, moulds and cores, Heating and pouring, Solidification and cooling, Gating Design, Design considerations, defects.

**F**orming Processes: Stress-strain diagrams for ductile and brittle material, Plastic deformation and yield criteria, Fundamentals of hot and cold working processes, Bulk metal forming processes (forging, rolling extrusion, drawing), Sheet metal working processes (punching, blanking, bending, deep drawing, coining, spinning, Load estimation using homogeneous deformation methods, Defects). Processing of Powder metals- Atomization, compaction, sintering, secondary and finishing operations. Forming and shaping of Plastics- Extrusion, Injection Molding.

**J**oining Processes: Physics of welding, Fusion and non-fusion welding processes, brazing and soldering, Adhesive bonding, Design considerations in welding, Weld quality defects.Machining and Machine Tool

**O**perations: Mechanics of machining, Single and multi-point cutting tools, Tool geometry and materials, Tool life and wear, cutting fluids, Machinability, Economics of machining, non-traditional machining processes.

**M**etrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances, linear and angular measurements, comparators, gauge design, interferometry, Form and finish measurement, measurement of screw threads, Alignment and testing methods.

**T**ool Engineering: Principles of work holding, Design of jigs and fixtures. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD, CAM and their integration tools.

**M**anufacturing Analysis: Part-print analysis, tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly, time and cost analysis.

**W**ork-Study: Method study, work measurement time study, work sampling, job evaluation, merit rating.

**P**roduction Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, master scheduling, materials requirements planning.

**I**nventory Control: Deterministic and probabilistic models, safety stock inventory control systems.

**O**perations Research: Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

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